Angela Washko 安吉拉·瓦施蔻

Angela Washko 安吉拉·瓦施蔻

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安吉拉·瓦施蔻在 2012 年初创立了“魔兽世界性别敏感性与行为意识处” ,介入网络 《魔兽世界》——这个有史以来最受欢迎的多人角色扮演游戏。瓦施蔻并没有按照游戏的结构和逻辑——屠龙、获取更强的装备、加入更多更强大的团体......透过她建立的线上机构,她在玩家之间发起讨论,探讨他们是如何看待女性,以及对“女权 主义”一词的看法。瓦施蔻创造了一个基于网络玩家的环境,对女性友好的强制性女 权主义空间。魔兽世界的玩家社群无论在地域上、政治上、经济上、社会上和种族上都非常多元(比瓦施蔻生活中公共空间更多元)。因此,游戏空间内产生的讨论更能反映现在美国人对“女性”角色的辩证看法。 

In early 2012 Angela Washko founded “The Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft” as an intervention within World of Warcraft, the most popular massively multiplayer role-playing game of all time. Instead of continuing to follow the quest structure of the game--killing dragons, getting better equipment, joining more competitive guilds...while performing as “The Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft”, Washko facilitates discussions with players inside the game about the ways in which the communities therein addresses women and how players respond to the term “FEMINISM”. Washko is interested in the impulse of the player-base to create an oppressive, misogynistic space for women within a physical environment that is otherwise accessible and inviting. Furthermore, WoW is a geographically, politically, economically, socially, and racially diverse community (a much more varied community to engage with than she has in physical public space). Consequently these discussions within the game space create a much larger picture of the American opinion of what women should and should not be today. 

医者(魔兽世界性别敏感性与行为意识处)
Healer (The Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft) 
单屏幕录像Single Channel Video
4'16" 2013 


[ 小猫 ] 请问你可以参与我的研究吗?
[ 小猫 ] 道子,你好!
[ 但丁 ] 我刚刚说了。
[ 灌木 ] 是的,女性过去曾经备受歧视,但自从女权运动以来,许多法律都得到了修改。到了 21 世纪,女性拥有和男性同样的权利,如果不是更多的权利,所以女 权运动现在只是在制造事端而已。 
[ 小猫 ] 我明白了。
[ 但丁 ] 女性是坏纸张。
[ 但丁 ] 她们应该充当治疗师。
[ 道子 ] 你好!
[ 小猫 ] 为什么女性天生比男性更适合充当治疗师呢?
[ 但丁 ] 在我玩“英雄联盟”的时候,很多人也会说“回去厨房”吧! 
[ 灌木 ] (大声笑)(大声笑)(大声笑)(大声笑)
[ 小猫 ] 回去厨房?
[ 但丁 ] 哇你的厨房里有台电脑!* 玛姬芒果取笑灌木 *
[ 但丁 ] 那些笑话。
[ 灌木 ] (大声笑)
[ 小猫 ] 我有一台手提电脑。
[ 但丁 ] 然后你是一名女性?
[ 小猫 ] 所以它可以回去厨房。
[ 小猫 ] 对,我是一名女性。
[ 那殊加 ] 我也有一台手提电脑。
[ 但丁 ] 不过
[ 小猫 ] 你是在厨房使用它吗?
[ 灌木 ] (大声笑)
[ 小猫 ] 我不在厨房使用,
[ 小猫 ] 但我可以选择在厨房使用。
[ 但丁 ] 为什么你在这里呢?
[ 但丁 ] 电线也太长了吧,
[ 但丁 ] 开玩笑的!
[ 但丁 ] :(
[ 小猫 ] 你的意思是我应该留在厨房,而不是玩“魔兽世界”吗?
[ 但丁 ] 别生气!
[ 但丁 ] 我喜欢女人 :P
[ 但丁 ] 不。
[ 灌木 ] 哈哈哈,我也是。
[ 但丁 ] 那是个笑话。
[ 灌木 ] 开玩笑的!
[ 小猫 ] 你好!
[ 小猫 ] 你好喔!
[ 玛姬芒果 ] 请别叫我的名字!
[ 小猫 ] 不,别走!
[ 但丁 ] 我是一名厨师。 
[ 菲利普野兽 ] 你好!
[ 小猫 ] 菲利普野兽。
[ 但丁 ] 那代表我是一个娘炮吗?
[ 但丁 ] 那代表我是同性恋吗?
[ 菲利普野兽 ] 怎么了?
[ 但丁 ] 请告诉我。
[ 玛姬芒果 ] 是的。
[ 灌木 ] 玛姬,为什么你那么小?
[ 小猫 ] 可以很快地告诉我你对女权主义的定义吗?
[ 菲利普野兽 ] 嗯?
[ 小猫 ] 你知道吗,当我问你如何看待女权主义的时候,你会怎么回应? 
[ 那殊加 ] 如果我是一名女性呢?
[ 但丁 ] 人们曾经讨厌他。
[ 那殊加 ] 请看这个。
[ 但丁 ] 所以我是同性恋。
[ 小猫 ] 你是一名男性,为什么你在游戏里选择使用一名女性角色?
[ 灌木 ] 因为他是个易服癖。
[ 那殊加 ] 这可是我的爱好。
[ 但丁 ] 不是,我不是。
[ 小猫 ] 为什么?
[ 但丁 ] 有时候我会想看辣妹。
[ 那殊加 ] 我不喜欢使用男性角色。
[ 菲利普野兽 ] (大声笑)
[ 小猫 ] 我注意到许多男性玩家会选择女性角色。
[ 小猫 ] 可是没有多少女性玩家会选择男性角色。
[ 小猫 ] 为什么会有这种情况呢?
[ 灌木 ] 因为当他觉得无聊的时候,他可以看看眼前的女性角色解闷。
[ 菲利普野兽 ] 那很笨。
[ 但丁 ] 游戏玩家女孩。
[ 但丁 ] 那才像样。
[ 小猫 ] 灌木,那是什么意思?
[ 那殊加 ] 如果没有穿上盔甲,你最好不要来看我。
[ 菲利普野兽 ] 杀掉加门!
[ 小猫 ] 那殊加,你的斗篷蛮好看的。
[ 但丁 ] 别碰加门!
[ 那殊加 ] 什么鬼东西?
[ 小猫 ] 是的!
[ 小猫 ] 你懂得,不是比基尼。
[ 小猫 ] 那个......
[ 小猫 ] 十分感谢大家!
[ 小猫 ] 嗯嗯......
[ 小猫 ] 我觉得那个不错。
[ 那殊加 ] 我的文胸是比基尼?
[ 小猫 ] 可以再给我们看一次吗? 
[ 小猫 ] 我看不出来。
[ 那殊加 ] 我的文胸?
[ 小猫 ] 是的,麻烦你了!
[ 小猫 ] 有很多人在等着呢!
[ 那殊加 ] 你看到我的文胸?
[ 小猫 ] 现在有 40 人为你鼓掌呢。 
[ 小猫 ] 你看起来很棒。 

Healer (The Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft) 
2013
[Ookitties] would you mind participating in my research?
[Ookitties] Hey Daozi
[Dante] I just said[Scrub] yes, women were discriminated against awhile back, but after many feminist movements the laws were changed. It is now the 21st century and women have all if not more rights then men do. so the feminist activities are doing nothing more then creating drama. 
[Ookitties] I see you
[Dante] women are bad paper
[Dante] are useful as healer
[Daozi] Hello
[Ookitties] why are women inherently better healers than men?
[Dante] In game also when I’m playing League of Legend ppl used to say “go back kitchen”
[Scrub] LOLOLOLOL
[Ookitties] go back kitchen?
[Dante] Wow you have a computer in your kitchen!*Maggeymango laughs at Scrub*
[Dante] all those Joke
[Scrub] lawlz
[Ookitties] I have a laptop
[Dante] and you are woman?[
Ookitties] so I guess it could go to the kitchen
[Ookitties] I am a woman
[Nashuaga] I do have a laptop
[Dante] But
[Ookitties] do you use it in the kitchen?
[Scrub] lol
[Ookitties] I don’t
[Ookitties] but I could
[Dante] why you are here?
[Dante] the chain is too long
[Dante] JK
[Dante] :(
[Ookitties] are you saying that I should have stayed in kitchen instead of playing wow
[Dante] don’t get angry
[Dante] I love women:P
[Dante] No
[Scrub] hahaha I am
[Dante] is a Joke
[Scrub] jk
[Ookitties] hey
[Ookitties] hey you
[Maggeymango] don’t call me names
[Ookitties] no don’t leave
[Dante] I’m a chef
[Phillipbeast] hey
[Ookitties] phillipbeast
[Dante] so I’m Girl like? 
[Dante] that make me gay? 
[Phillipbeast] ye? 
[Dante] Just Tell me
[Maggeymango] yup
[Scrub] maggey, why u so little?
[Ookitties] would you mind telling me your definition of feminism really quickly? 
[Phillipbeast] ehhhh?
[Ookitties] you know, when I say HEY WHAT DOES FEMINISM MEAN TO YOU? what do you say?[Nashuaga] and if I’m a tauren female
[Dante] ppl used to hate him
[Nashuaga] just watch this
[Dante] so I’m gay.
[Ookitties] why do you play a female character if you are a male?
[Scrub] cause he’s a tranny
[Nashuaga] Umm that’s what I like to do
[Dante] No No
[Ookitties] why?
[Dante] sometime you wanna c a Hot Bump
[Nashuaga] I don’t like to play male
[Phillipbeast] lol
[Ookitties] I noticed that lots of men play female characters
[Ookitties] but not a lot of women play male characters
[Ookitties] why is that?
[Scrub] cause when he gets bored he can just fap to his toon
[Phillipbeast] it’s dumb
[Dante] gamer chicks
[Dante] legit
[Ookitties] scrub what does that mean?
[Nashuaga] you really don’t wanna see me without armor
[Phillipbeast] KILL GAMON
[Ookitties] hey nashuaga, nice cape
[Dante] LEAVE GAMON ALONE!
[Nashuaga] Mok’Nathal Wildercloak?
[Ookitties] yes that
[Ookitties] you know, not the bikini
[Ookitties] that
[Ookitties] well thanks so much everybody
[Ookitties] ummm 

自然(魔兽世界性别敏感性与行为意识处)
Nature (The Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft) 
单屏幕录像Single Channel Video
6'21" 2012 


[ 斯诺 ] 你好!我正在进行一个研究项目,请问你可以帮我一下吗?
[ 斯诺 ] 请问你可以告诉我,你如何定义女权主义或者什么样的人才算是一位女权主义者呢? :)
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 厨房。* 斯诺戳了一下这个坏选择 *
[ 斯诺 ] 为什么你会选厨房呢?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 因为女孩子就该留在厨房里。
[ 斯诺 ] 我常常听到这个说法!为什么你会认为女人就该待在厨房里呢?* 斯诺打量了一下迪瑟斯 *
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 因为如果她们不是待在厨房,她们就会在“魔兽世界”上问我这类问题。 而我现在肚子正饿。:)
[ 斯诺 ] 为什么你会认为我是个女孩?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 因为男孩一般只关注自己的事情 :P 他们才不会去做研究问卷。
[ 斯诺 ] 你想吃什么呢?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 三明治。
[ 斯诺 ] 这个假设很有趣——为什么男人就不做研究呢?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 因为他们要在游戏里进行突袭和与其他玩家对战,没有时间。
[ 斯诺 ] 所以你认为他们一般花很多时间玩“魔兽世界”?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 如果男性是“魔兽世界”的玩家,他们一般都是深度玩家。
[ 斯诺 ] 所以一般的男性花很多时间在“魔兽世界”上,他们就没有时间搞研究了?
 [ 迪瑟斯 ] “魔兽世界” 本身就是个会让人上瘾的事情,玩家们才不会花时间去研究它。
[ 斯诺 ] 那怎样的人才算是深度玩家呢?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 如果他每天都花大量时间玩“魔兽世界”。(大声笑)
[ 斯诺 ] 噢。
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 对生活并不投入,只是游戏的深度玩家。
[ 斯诺 ] 如果一名女性每天都花很长时间玩 “魔兽世界”,她也算是深度玩家吗?
[ 布鲁日 ] 那代表她没有花足够的时间去煮饭。
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 深度与否跟性没有关系。(大声笑)^^^
[ 斯诺 ] 噢,我没有这样说过!
[ 雅谷 ] 不对。
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 我知道我只是阐述我的观点。
[ 斯诺 ] 你对隆胸的看法是?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 我讨厌隆胸。
[ 斯诺 ] 为什么?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 我比较喜欢天然的事物。
[ 斯诺 ] 那你认为为什么那么多女性会去隆胸?大部分 “魔兽世界” 的男性玩家似 乎都反对隆胸。
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 我讨厌化妆、隆胸和染发。
[ 斯诺 ] :)
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 嗯,社会普遍较喜欢丰乳,可是我不喜欢。
[ 斯诺 ] 但你认为女生应该留在厨房。
[ 科瑞卡拉 ](私下对斯诺说)你可以加入第三级别的协会吗?
[ 斯诺 ](私下对科瑞卡拉说 ) 除非我能让你跟我谈谈女权主义的话题! 
[ 迪瑟斯 ](大声笑)我的女朋友也玩电子游戏。我并不介意。我们可以一起玩电 子游戏。
[ 斯诺 ] 喔,听起来很不错。:)
[ 科瑞卡拉 ](私下对斯诺说)所以你有什么想告诉我? 
[ 斯诺 ] (私下对科瑞卡拉说)我想问你一个问题!你如何定义女权主义? 
[ 科瑞卡拉 ](私下对斯诺说)什么???我不懂。
[ 斯诺 ] 她(你的女友)擅长玩 “魔兽世界” 吗?
[ 迪瑟斯 ] (大声笑)不,但我不指望女生玩家会擅长玩这个。 
[ 斯诺 ] 所以你认为女性玩家一般都比较差?
[ 斯诺 ](私下对科瑞卡拉说 ) 那是你的个人意见,你认为怎样才算是一位女权主 义者?
[ 科瑞卡拉 ](私下对斯诺说)一个坏人,但我觉得你是个好人。
[ 迪瑟斯 ] 我就不会指望她们玩得好。一个女性正常来说,不应该是一名深度玩家。 玩电子游戏本来就是男孩子的天下。我并不是性别歧视,事实就是如此。
[ 斯诺 ] 你觉得天生就是这样吗?还是受社会影响? 


[Snuh] Hi! I'm working on a research project! Would you mind helping me out?
[Snuh] Would you mind telling me how you define feminism or what makes a feminist? :) [Deezerss] A kitchen*Snuh pokes Badchoice.*
[Snuh] Why a kitchen?
[Deezerss] Cause girls should stay in the kitchen.
[Snuh] I get that answer a lot! What makes you think that women should stay in the kitchen?*Snuh inspects Deezerss*
[Deezerss] cause if they aren’t in the kitchen then they are on WoW asking questions like these. And I’m hungry. :)
[Snuh] What makes you assume I’m a girl? :)
[Deezers] Cause guys usually stick there own shit you know :P. They don’t do research surveys.[Snuh] What are you hungry for?
[Deezerss] Sammich
[Snuh] Oh, that’s an interesting assumption – Why don't men do research?
[Deezerss] Cause they raid and PvP. No time.
[Snuh] So you mean, they play WoW a lot. Generally speaking?
[Deezerss] If they play Wow. Then most of men are “hardcore”.
[Snuh] So the average man plays a lot of wow and has no time for research?
[Deezerss] WoW is an addiction in itself. They don’t research ON WoW.
[Snuh] What makes a man “hardcore”?
[Deezerss] If he plays WoW a lot everyday. lol
[Snuh] Oh.
[Deezerss] Not hardcore in life. Just a hardcore gamer
[Snuh] what if a woman plays WoW a lot everyday? hardcore as well?
[Bruge] she aint cooking enough then
[Deezerss] Hardcore has nothing to do with Sex. LOL^^^
[Snuh] Oh, I didn’t say that it did!
[Yagoot] NO
[Deezerss] I know I was just stating that
[Snuh] What’s your stance on boob jobs?
[Deezerss] Hate em
[Snuh] Why?
[Deezerss] I prefer natural.
[Snuh] Why do you think so many women aspire to get boob jobs? Most men on WoW seem to be anti-boob-job
[Deezerss] I dislike makeup, boob jobs, and dyed hair.
[Snuh] :)
[Deezerss] Uhm. Cause society typically prefers big tits. But I don’t.
[Snuh] But you are pro-gb2 kitchen.
[Foerekthra] (whisper to Snuh) can you join level 3 guild
[Snuh] (whisper to Foerekthra) only if I can engage you in a conversation about
feminism!
[Deezerss] :Lol Nah. My girlfriend plays games. I don’t mind it. Something we can do together
[Snuh] Aww that sounds nice :)
[Foerekthra] (whisper to Snuh) so you want to tell me about something?
[Snuh] (whisper to Foerekthra) I want to ask you a question! What’s your de nition of feminism?[Foerekthra] (whisper to Snuh) ok??? Don’t know.
[Snuh] Is she good? at wow
[Deezerss] Lol not really. But I don’t expect females to be “good”.
[Snuh] so you assume that women will be worse in general?!
[Snuh ] (whisper to Foerekthra) it can be personal, like what do you think makes a feminist?[Foerekthra ] (whisper to Snuh) a bad person and I think your nice
[Deezerss] No. I just don’t expect them to be as good. It’s not normal Nature for a female to be a hardcore gamer. It’s more of a guy thing. Not being sexist. Its just what it is.
[Snuh] hmmm inherently? or like societally influenced? 

安吉拉·瓦施蔻作为一名艺术家、作家和主持人,不断为女性主义创造新的讨论,在空间中也在实体空间之外。她现在是卡内基梅隆大学的助理教授。2012 年安吉拉创办了“魔兽世界性别敏感性与行为意识处”,作 为一个长期通过多角色、角色扮演的线上游戏之持续介入的艺术工作。安吉拉相继获得富兰克林·弗南司行为艺术基金,弗兰克·瑞奇艺术与前线基金,根茎网络艺术微基金等。安吉拉的工作广受媒体关注,如美国 艺术、弗瑞兹杂志、时代周刊、卫报、艺术论坛、艺术新闻、VICE、Hairpin、Hyperallergic, 根茎、纽约时 报、创想者计划等。她的工作展出于国内外美术馆及机构,如芬兰赫尔辛基 KIASMA 美术馆、洛杉矶当代 艺术馆、米兰设计三年展、美国匹兹堡安迪·沃霍美术馆、移动影像博览会(英国/美国)、鹿特丹国际电 影节、德国柏林转移媒体艺术节、美国波士顿当代艺术中心等。安吉拉撰写的文字发表在,如 Creative Time Reports,场域:社会参与性艺术批评,哥本哈根大学同行评审期刊 (NTIK), Neural Magazine, VASA 图像与文 化期刊,.dpi 艺术与数字文化之女权主义者,Hyperallergic,纽约 ANIMAL 等。 

Angela Washko is an artist, writer and facilitator devoted to creating new forums for discussions of feminism in the spaces most hostile toward it. She is currently a Visiting Assistant Professor at Carnegie Mellon University. In 2012, Washko founded The Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft as an ongoing intervention inside the most popular massively multiplayer online role-playing game of all time. A recent recipient of a Franklin Furnace Performance Fund Grant, a Frank-Ratchye Fund for Art at the Frontier Grant, and a Rhizome Internet Art Microgrant, Washko’s practice has been highlighted in Art in America, Frieze Magazine, Time Magazine, The Guardian (UK), ArtForum, ARTnews, The Hairpin, VICE, Hyperallergic, Rhizome, the New York Times, The Creator’s Project, and more. Her projects have been presented nationally and internationally at venues including Kiasma Museum of Contemporary Art (Helsinki, Finland), Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, the Milan Design Triennale, The Andy Warhol Museum (Pittsburgh, PA), Moving Image Art Fair (London and NYC), the Rotterdam International Film Festival, Transmediale (Berlin, Germany) and Institute for Contemporary Art Boston. Her writing has been published in Creative Time Reports, FIELD Journal of Socially Engaged Art Criticism, Copenhagen University Peer Reviewed Journal (NTIK), Neural Magazine, VASA Journal of Images and Culture, .dpi Feminist Magazine of Art and Digital Culture, Hyperallergic, ANIMAL NY and more. 

为什么要在魔兽世界内讨论女权主义? 
安吉拉·瓦施蔻 

“玩家门”不只是和虚拟世界内的性别歧视有关,在网路世界中我们就是真实世界 中的我们。艺术家安吉拉·瓦施蔻在这个近十年最受欢迎的多人游戏中创立了一 个可以进行关于性别而且毫无审查的对话空间。 

[ 贞洁 ]: 堕胎是错误的行为,任何女性如果曾经堕胎都应该进行结扎。 
[ 紫白色的猫头鹰 ]: 那如果我提出关于强奸的理论呢?
[ 斯诺 ]: 那如果她们是因奸成孕而且没有经济能力抚养孩子呢?
[ 中间派 ]: 很明显贞洁这人精神有问题。 
[ 斯诺 ]: 那如果她们只有 14 岁然后被强奸了呢?
[ 贞洁 ]: 我小时候就被家里的人强奸过。如果我当时怀孕了,我不会因此而杀死我可怜的小孩,因为我不是被那位小孩强奸的。 

以上就着堕胎的伦理产生的激烈个人讨论出现在热闹的奥格瑞玛市,它是魔兽世 界内拥有 700 万玩家出没的其中一个首都。经过多年来与部落一起袭击地牢,砍 杀妖精和巫师,身上穿着有尖刺和眼球嵌入的护肩,骑着飞龙在火红的火山上飞 翔,我决定拒绝按规则玩下去。由于对我服务器上的玩家肆无忌惮的性别歧视忍 无可忍,我在 2012 年创办了魔兽世界性别敏感性与行为意识关注委员会,期望引 起就着在游戏空间内出现的厌恶女性、恐同症、种族歧视以及其他歧视语言的相 关讨论。 

身为一位游戏玩家、艺术家和女权主义者,我认为我有责任去消除这些关于游戏 玩家的刻板印象 —— 特别是魔兽世界的玩家 —— 他们被错误标签为缺乏个人魅力 和小气的失败者。与此同时,我对于游戏玩家散播这种带有仇恨的语言的行为提 出质疑,而他们则因此获得上述的负评。由游戏开发商设计的社区空间其实是非 常了不起的,本应该可以给我们带来不一样的氛围。在魔兽世界里存在的族群, 不同的团队总是聚集在一起花费数个小时去讨论策略,在展示他们解决问题的能 力和领袖才能的同时,彼此之间建立了紧密的关系。遗憾的是,在这个过程当中, 他们之间优秀的沟通体系却孕育了排斥女性和少数族群的行为准则。 

如果你尝试向一位从未玩过魔兽世界(或者任何类似的游戏)的朋友解释:一群 人控制着兽人和侏儒骑着飞龙飞翔其实是可以帮助他们建立有意义的长期关系以 及获得有裨益的团队建设体验,这应该是有点困难的。普遍城市词典(美国俚语 词典)对魔兽世界的定义为“只读光盘内的毒品”并附上注明“该游戏玩家一般刻板 印象为住在父母家地下室的肥胖男生,他们有的失业,有的没有女友,总而言之 是人生的失败者”。大家只需要关注一下最近在网上流传的“玩家门”, 一个由数千名游戏玩家发起的网路社会运动,旨在让那些向他们提出质疑的女性和少数族群 噤声。大家可以发现当有人尝试垄断“游戏玩家”这个身份,这群人反而正中了社会上刻板印象的下怀。可是值得留意的是游戏玩家正渐渐摆脱同质社会团体的属性。 

魔兽世界是一个完美的细菌培养皿,去推动那些不受现实生活身份拘束的人去讨论女权主义。 

当喜欢玩游戏的女性和少数族群无法理解为何自己会受到侮辱、丑化或者是被排斥,那些自称游戏玩家的人一般都会如此回应:“如果你不喜欢,为什么不另起炉 灶呢?”那些默默承受这些傲慢话语的人正在静静地起革命,他们自资设计属于他 们的游戏并且重写他们的文化评论,尝试重塑游戏版图。在新资讯的游戏与女权 主义教育大纲名册上出现像女人设计游戏这样的企业,或是像安娜·安托弗、莫 利德·斯利亚和梅里特·库帕斯的游戏制造商,还有像利亚历山大、萨曼莎·艾伦、拉娜·波兰斯基和其他的游戏作家,他们的作品在市场上的发行量与日俱增。 他们更关注文化创新、叙事性和多元声音,与整个游戏行业普遍只关注销售数字 和利润的企业文化截然不同。 

尤其奇怪的是,出现在魔兽世界内的性别歧视游戏玩家不但来自多元的社会、经济和种族背景,而且根据代达罗斯项目的统计,他们的平均年龄为 28 岁(有人曾 以这只是一群 14 岁的小男孩在喧闹作为辩解,这显然站不住脚)。如果“玩家门” 的支持者应该尊重社会的多元性,那许多非玩家也应该接受所谓的物质(真实) 世界和虚拟(虚假)世界的二元论已经过时。在游戏的世界里,玩家面对的社交 关系和规则其实与其在课堂或者公园里所面对的是一样的,即使面对的限制相对 较少。因此,与其继续在网路游戏上大开杀戒,或者继续把游戏视作一个性别歧 视泛滥、肤浅和保守的空间并弃之敝屣,我尝试开拓公共讨论空间就在魔兽世界 内出现的歧视性语言进行讨论。我意识到这些游戏玩家的地区分布比我常常在纽 约和圣地亚哥交往的艺术或学术圈子更能代表美国的主流民意。这也使他们成为 与不受现实生活身份限制的人开展关于女性权利、女权主义和性别表达的对话的 最佳细菌培养皿。 

跟许多虚拟空间一样,魔兽世界可以是一座不受现实生活管制的堡垒,里面充斥着恐同症、种族歧视和性别歧视。由于游戏本身需要投入大量的时间,只有那些 兢兢业业的玩家才能升级到那些有许多人聊天的首都(譬如奥格瑞玛,大部分我 参与的讨论都在这里进行),这代表只有那些最频繁上线的玩家有能力在游戏空 间内提出这些议题。此时,在日常生活和职场最常见的外交辞令全被抛诸脑后, 取而代之的是 “激进真相” 。当我问他们关于女性在魔兽世界内未被充分代表的问 题,他们并未提到一些玩家毫不掩饰的性别歧视,而是将问题归咎于线上游戏本 身就是一种属于男性的活动这个“事实”。许多与我聊过的那些玩家都认为女性天 生就较喜欢选择在游戏内扮演“治疗者”的角色。他们提出这些观点的时候仿佛都 把它们视作为有着科学基础的金科玉律。 

当我问男性玩家为何他们会选择使用女性角色,我总会得到类似的回应:“我宁 可一整天在魔兽世界看着女生的屁股。” 

女性玩家现在需要在游戏空间内“表明性别”,冒着被嘲笑和性别化的风险,因为 超过一半在魔兽世界里使用女性化身的其实都是男性玩家(与之相反女性玩家甚 少使用男性化身)。遗憾的是这不是因为魔兽世界是一个充满同理心的乌托邦, 男性玩家选择女性化身为了更好地去体会她们的经历和视角。魔兽世界只是单纯 地向男性玩家提供机会去控制一个被物化和仿造的女性胴体。当我问男性玩家为 何他们会选择使用女性角色,我总会得到类似的回应:“我宁可一整天在魔兽世界 看着女生的屁股”,“因为一整天看着男人的屁股是一件很娘的事情”,“我选择使 用一位美丽动人的女性角色因为我喜欢看美女”。我对于诸如此类的回应感到非常不安,而 Slate 杂志最近也引用了一个持相同观点研究。这也让我想起劳拉·穆 尔维在其 1975 年出版的著名论文《视觉快感与叙事电影》中对于男性的凝视的讨 论:“在一个性别不平等的世界秩序中,视觉的享受被拆解为主动 / 男性和被动 / 女性。男性的目光将他的幻想投射到女性的胴体,而后者则按照前者的期望进行 打扮。在扮演她们传统的自我表现的角色时,女性同时被观看和展示自我,而她 们的外表则是极力呈现强烈的视觉和情欲效果。” 

男性玩家把自己的幻想投射到他们定制和控制的女性虚拟角色并从中获取欢愉, 他们与那些选择使用女性角色并在言语上进行反抗的女性展开较量。因为诚如泰 特拉在下图说的,对于女性而言这是合乎逻辑的事情。在许多情况下女性在社会 上从未承认拥有性欲,更枉论按照个人性欲行事,甚至是将欲望投射在她们选择 的游戏角色并予以征服和控制。 

当我继续在魔兽世界的服务器上开展关于歧视言论的讨论,我注意到引起最多负 面回应和最大误区的题目是“女权主义”。以下是我询问游戏玩家对于女权主义定 义的回应的节选(我的问题也是研究的一部分): 

[ 贞洁 ]: 女权主义者是自以为高人一等和讨厌男性的妓女。我认为女性就应 该待在家里,料理好家里的事情,照顾好她的孩子、厨房和她的丈夫。在你问我的性别以前,是的,我是一名女性。
[ 中间派 ]: 女权主义是为女性争取平等的权益。 
[ 超级跳 ]: 你只需要知道怀孕、碗碟、裸露、自慰、剃光毛发和结实丰满的乳房。女权主义说白了就是关于硕大的乳房和给孩子哺乳的修长有弹性乳头。
[ 泰特拉 ]: 女权主义是一个渴望别人关注的婊子的名词。它的意思是女性比男性优秀,而且应该比男性获得更多,而这并不是事实。把世界看成是女性社会,而不是全人类。与男性为敌,而不是与他们合作。 
[ 尤卡丽 ]: 女权主义不是关于有的人行为举止像女孩子吗?
[ 尝试 ]: 上谷歌去查查吧兄弟。
[ 神圣披萨 ]: 女孩子有胸部,该回去厨房。
[ 覆盘子 ]: 我不知道,应该是那些接受不了厨房玩笑的女孩想争取更多的权益吧。 
[ 战败者 ]: 女权主义是支持她们不给我做三明治吗?她们应该更快地帮我弄 好三明治。
[ 稀元素银行 ]: 我不确定是否应该在魔兽世界提女权主义者。
[ 锦葵 ]: 我认为那些女权中坚分子总是认为女性比较优秀,(大声笑)而当 她们不喜欢男性拥有的一些不受欢迎的事物她们又改变主意了。 
[ 艾维斯特 ]: 妈的。
[ 米斯蒂思姆 ]: (大声笑)女权主义就像另一种形式的共产主义,假装在保 护女性从而渗透到社会。
[ 赛琳娜 ]: 女权主义者认为女性比男性优秀。她们疯了。男性和女性是一样 的。我们只是更性感。
[ 是的我是亲密 ]: 大姑娘喜欢吃自助餐可是不喜欢刮腋毛??
[ 尼姆罗森 ]: 我认为这个词已经有太多的负面 / 正面含义,我们不应该纠结在它的定义上。
[ 但丁 ]: 女性作为治疗者还是很有用的。
[ 磨砂 ]: 女性在过去确实有被歧视过,但经过了许多女权运动以后法律也进 行了修改。现在我们身处 21 世纪,女性拥有和男性一样的权利,所以这些 女权主义者只是在制造纷争。 

上述的许多留言和大家在网路上的男性权利论坛所看到的留言相近似。最近游戏 社群和男性权利社群有着高度的重叠性。路殊 V,一个被每日点誉为“网路上最恶 名昭彰的厌恶女性者”的搭讪高手,虽然他本身不是一名游戏玩家,却刚刚在网路 上建立了一个声援 “玩家门”支持者的网站。而在他公布建立网站前一周,我向他 就另一个与此题目无关的项目进行了采访。 

大部分和我在魔兽世界聊过的女性并不认为她们是这个体制里面的受害者,很可 能因为正因为她们在游戏空间内是稀缺资源,大大提高了她们作为欲望投射对象 的价值(只要她们不问过多的问题),只要这种投射不延伸到电脑屏幕外她们的 真实肉体。在跟我聊过的女性中,对于我提出关于女权主义和作为一位女性魔兽 世界玩家的问题,我大概能归纳出两种常见却独特的回应。第一类回应:“女权主 义者痛恨男性,而女权主义鼓励外形靓丽的女性去当荡妇。”第二类回应是:“女 权主义是为女性争取平等权益,可是我不太想在魔兽世界提这个议题,因为在社 群内提及它的排他性会影响我参与竞技游戏,而且会让我招致嘲笑。” 

在网路上进行互动并且不会影响到个人线下的私人生活的机会正变得越来越少。

当然,像“回去厨房吧”或是“给我弄个三明治”这类狠话很容易脱口而出,但它们 确实巩固社会上对女性扮演角色的保守观点。在游戏空间内盛行的观点:女性天 生就不适合玩电子游戏(她们比较适合煮饭、清理、孕育和照顾小孩,应该一直 留直发并且忠实地照顾她们的男人),这一切都为希望能够在游戏世界内一显身 手并且参与其社交潜力的女性制造了障碍。这些障碍使女性无法在游戏世界内获 得认可,总是停留在被迷恋的性对象角色。而拒绝扮演这个角色的女性会被其他 玩家公开丑化并被成为“女权纳粹者”。 

很遗憾的是我并没有能够按照初衷把魔兽世界转化成一个进行平等和互相尊重对 话的平台。取而代之的是我意识到问题远比游戏本身严重。在拨号上网的年代, 当我的家庭终于意识到“上网”的必要性,我们都很恐惧会被别人知道我们是谁。 保持匿名身份是当年的默认选项,而保护你的个人信息可以预防陷入骗局,或者 是免于信用卡资料被窃,避免在现实生活中被跟踪,或者避免在你的身份被别人 知道后父母认为会发生的一切事情。 

在我玩多用户虚拟空间游戏(文本多用户地牢游戏 – 大型多人在线角色扮演游 戏如魔兽世界的前身)时发现我可以与其他玩家很亲密和坦诚但不会有任何不好 的后果。在那种场景下我和现实生活中的我没有任何联系。但自从由网路 1.0 版 本进化到网路 2.0 版本以后,游戏发生了巨大的变化,消除了一切可以隐藏虚拟 自我身份的可能性。这使得互联网用户要去扮演一个(被职业化)线上版的自我(品 牌效应)。保持匿名性的可能性正在悄悄消失,因为许多网站,譬如脸书,都要求我们使用真名和真实的身份去和其他人进行活动。在网路上进行互动并且不会 影响到个人线下的私人生活的机会正变得越来越少。 

虽然我曾经希望能够说服魔兽世界的玩家去重新考虑他们在游戏空间内使用的语 言,我很快就意识到这不但是我一个非常惹人讨厌的殖民主义冲动,而这种坚持 源自我对一些价值观的拥护,即使它们正变得过时和难以接受。在我介入庞大的 多人游戏空间的过程中,我发现魔兽世界正是一个可以让被表面上政治正确的美 国社会压制的意识形态、感受和体验得以释放的空间。 

有人曾以这只是一群 14 岁的小男孩在喧闹作为辩解,这显然站不住脚。 

在现实生活中,种族歧视、恐同症和性别歧视都是隐藏在制度里面,而不是明目张胆地发生在太阳底下。因为现在的社会已经不允许大家公然宣称自己是一位性 别歧视者或是恐同者,所以人们创立一些边缘空间让这些语言可以继续使用。魔 兽世界是一个不需要我们使用,在电脑屏幕以外,从日常生活中不同场景中学到 的职业和社交行为(或者是演出)的空间。与此同时,这种匿名性给予了我们一 个少数剩余的机会,在一个看似不被监视和与参与者的职业和社会背景完全脱离 的空间内,与其他在社交上极端保守的人形成共识。对于那些和我聊过的玩家, 我的研究项目提供了一个潜在有意义的平台,在游戏化身充分保护他们隐私的情 况下去分享他们对于社会价值观体系演变的关注。 

受益于一些视觉艺术家、游戏作家、游戏开发商和其他文化创作人的团结和日益 上涨的受欢迎程度,他们孕育了一种“游戏奇怪的未来”(引用梅里特·库帕斯的话) 和一个总体而言更具包容性的互联网。我相信那些被 “玩家门” 及其同类针对的玩 家们将会为与他们面临同样遭遇的族群设计更多的游戏空间。我希望大家的焦点 可以从研究这些被边缘化的族群如何被代表转移到建立更多传播同理心的游戏空 间。与其因为你喜欢她的臀部设计而去选择一个女性血精灵角色,玩家应该能够 选择一个他们未必能够理解或者认同的角色,去完全体验那个角色的视角。可能 在这个奇异的乌托邦游戏空间里代入一个他者,玩家可以学会如何尊重一个和自 己截然不同的人,或者至少他们不会再轻易否定其他玩家的人生经历是真实的、 可以接受和值得歌颂的。 

Why Talk Feminism in World of Warcraft? 
Angela Washko 

#Gamergate isn’t just about sexism in virtual worlds—who we are online is who we are IRL. Artist Angela Washko creates spaces for un ltered conversations about gender to emerge in one of the decade’s most popular multiplayer games. 

[Chastity]: Abortion is wrong and any woman who gets one should be sterilized for life.[Purpwhiteowl]: should i mention the rape theory?
[Snuh]: What if they don’t have the means to pay for the child and got raped? 
[Xentrist]: clearly Chastity in sick
[Snuh]: What if they are 14 years old and were raped?
[Chastity]: I was raped growing up. Repeatedly. By a family member. If i had gotten pregnant i wouldnt have murdered the poor child. because THE CHILD did not rape me. 

This intense and personal discussion regarding the ethics of abortion unfolded in the lively city of Orgrimmar, one of the capitals of an online universe populated by more than 7 million players: World of Warcraft (WoW). After several years of raiding dungeons with guilds, slaying goblins and sorcerers, wearing spiked shoulder pads with eyeballs embedded in them and flying on dragons over flaming volcanic ruins, I decided to abandon playing the game as directed. Fed up with the casual sexism exhibited by players on my servers, in 2012 I founded the Council on Gender Sensitivity and Behavioral Awareness in World of Warcraft to facilitate discussions about the misogynistic, homophobic, racist and otherwise discriminatory language used within the game space. 

As a gamer who is also an artist and a feminist, I consider it my responsibility to dispel stereotypes about gamers—especially WoW players—who have been mislabeled as unattractive, mean-spirited losers. At the same time, I question my fellow gamers’ propagation of the hateful speech that earns them those epithets. The incredible social spaces designed by game developers suggest that things could have been otherwise; in WoW’s guilds, teams come together for hours to discuss strategy, forming intimate bonds as they exercise problem-solving and leadership skills. Unfortunately, somewhere along the way, this promising communication system bred codes to let women and minorities know that they didn’t belong. 

Trying to explain to someone who has never played WoW (or any similar game) that the orcs and elves riding flying dragons are engaging in meaningful long-term relationships and collaborative team-building experiences can be a little difficult. Typical Urban Dictionary entries for WoW define the game as “crack in CD-ROM form” and note, “players are widely stereotyped as fat guys living in their parents basements without a life or a job or a girl friend [sic].” One only needs to look into the ongoing saga of #gamergate—an online social movement orchestrated by thousands of gamers to silence women and minorities who have raised questions about their representation and treatment within the gaming community—to see how certain individuals play directly into the hands of this stereotype by attempting to lay exclusive claim to the “gamer” identity. But gamers, increasingly, are not a homogeneous social group. 

World of Warcraft is a perfect Petri dish for conversations about feminism with people who are uninhibited by IRL accountability 

When women and minorities who love games question why they are abused, poorly represented or made to feel out of place, self-identified gamers often respond with an age-old argument: “If you don’t like it, why don’t you make your own?” Those on the receiving end of this arrogant question are doing just that, reshaping the gaming landscape by independently designing their own critical games and writing their own cultural criticism. Organizations like Dames Making Games, game makers like Anna Anthropy, Molleindustria and Merritt Kopas and game writers like Leigh Alexander, Samantha Allen, Lana Polansky and others listed on The New Inquiry’s Gaming and Feminism Syllabus are becoming more and more visible and broadly distributed in opposition to an industry that cares much more about consumer sales data and pro t than about cultural innovation, storytelling and diversity of voices. 
What’s especially strange about the sexism present in WoW is that players not only come from diverse social, economic and racial backgrounds but are also, according to census data taken by the Daedalus Project, 28 years old on average. (“It’s just a bunch of 14-year-old boys trolling you” won’t cut it as a defense.) If #gamergate supporters need to respect this diversity, many non-gamers also need to accept that the dichotomy between the physical (real) and the virtual (fake) is dated; in game spaces, individuals perform their identities in ways that are governed by the same social relations that are operative in a classroom or park, though with fewer inhibitions. That’s why—instead of either continuing on quests to kill more baddies or declaring the game a trivial, reactionary space where sexists thrive and abandoning it—I embarked on a quest to facilitate conversations about discriminatory language in WoW’s public discussion channels. I realized that players’ geographic dispersion generates a population that is far more representative of American opinion than those of the art or academic circles that I frequent in New York and San Diego, making it a perfect Petri dish for conversations about women’s rights, feminism and gender expression with people who are uninhibited by IRL accountability. 

WoW, like many other virtual spaces, can be a bastion of homophobia, racism and sexism existing completely unchecked by physical world ramifications. Because of the time investment the game requires, only those dedicated enough to go through the leveling process will ever make it to a chatty capital city (like Orgrimmar, where most of my discussions take place), meaning that only the most avid players are capable of raising these issues within the game space. At such moments, the diplomatic facades required of everyday social and professional life are broken down, and an inverse policy of “radical truth” emerges. When I asked them about the underrepresentation of women in WoW—less than 15 percent of the player base is female—some of these unabashed purveyors of “truth” have attributed it not to the outspoken misogyny of players like themselves but to the “fact” that gaming is a naturally male activity. Many of the men I’ve talked to suggest that women are also inherently more interested in playing “healer” characters. These arguments are made as if they were obviously true— as if they were rooted in science. 

When I ask men why they play female characters, I’ve repeatedly been told:“I’d rather look at a girl’s butt all day in WoW” 

Women now have to “come out” as women in the game space, risking ridicule and sexualization, as more than half the female avatars running around in WoW are played by men (women, by contrast, are rarely interested in playing men). Unfortunately this is not because WoW is an empathetic utopia in which men play women to better understand their experiences and perspectives; WoW merely offers men another opportunity to control an objectified, simulated female body. When I ask men why they play female characters, I’ve repeatedly been told: “I’d rather look at a girl’s butt all day in WoW,” “because it would be gay to look at a guy’s butt all day” and “I project an attractive human woman on my character because I like to watch pretty girls.” I found these responses, which were corroborated by a study recently cited in Slate, disturbing to say the least. They also bring to mind Laura Mulvey’s discussion of the male gaze in her in uential essay “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema,” published in 1975: “In a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/ male and passive/female. The determining male gaze projects its phantasy on to the female form which is styled accordingly. In their traditional exhibitionist role women are simultaneously looked at and displayed, with their appearance coded for strong visual and erotic impact.” 

The simulated avatar woman customized and controlled by a man who gets pleasure out of projecting his fantasy onto her is in strict competition with the woman who talks back—the woman who plays women because, as Taetra points out in the image below, for women it is logical to do so. Women haven’t been socialized to capitalize on— or in many contexts even to admit to having—sexual desires and consequently do not project sexual objects to conquer and control onto their avatars. 

As I continued to facilitate discussions about the discriminatory language usage on various WoW servers, I realized that the topic generating the most negative responses and the greatest misunderstanding was “feminism”. Here’s a small sample of the responses I’ve gotten when asking for player de nitions of feminism (and framing my question as part of a research project): 
[Chastity]: Feminists are man hating whores who think their better than everyone else. Personally I think a woman’s job is to stay home, take care of her house, her babies, her kitchen and her man. And before you ask, yes I am female
[Xentrist]: Feminism is about EQUAL rights for women
[Hyperjump]: well all you really need to know is pregnant, dish’s, naked, masturbate, shaven, and solid rm titties. feminism is all about big titties and long stretchy nipples for kids to breastfeed.[Taetra]: Feminism is the attention whore term of saying that women are better than men and deserve everything if not more than them, which is not true in certain terms. Identifying with the female society instead of humans. Working against the males instead of with.
[Yukarri]: isnt it when somebody acts really girly
[Try]: google it bro
[Holypizza]: girls have boobs. gb2 kitchen
[Raspberrie]: idk like angry more rights for females can’t take a kitchen joke kind of lady
[Defeated]: is that supporting woman who don’t make me sammichs? they need to make my samwicths faster
[Kigensobank]: i dont know if WOW is the best place to ask for feminists
[Mallows]: I think that hardcore feminists often think that women are better lol and they change their mind when they don’t like something that men have that is undesirable
[Alvister]: da fuq
[Misstysmoo]: lol feminism is another way communism to be put into society under the pretense ofprotecting women
[Seirina]: Feminists are women who think they are better than men. Theyre nuts. Men and women are equal. We’re just sexier.
[Yesimapally]: Big Chicks who love a buffet but hate to shave their hairy armpits??
[Nimrodson]: i think it’s a word with too many negative/positive connotations to be worth de ning
[Dante]: woman are usefull as healer[Scrub]: yes, women were discriminated against while back, but after many feminist movements the laws were changed. It is now the 21st century and women have all if not more rights then men do. so the feminist activists are doing nothing more then creating drama 

The tone of many of these comments reflects what one might find on a men’s rights forum. Recently the gaming and men’s rights communities have overlapped unambiguously, as Roosh V—a so-called pick-up artist dubbed “the Web’s most infamous misogynist” by The Daily Dot—just created an online support site for #gamergate supporters despite not being a gamer himself. I conducted an interview with him for another (seemingly unrelated) project a week before he announced this site. 

Most of the women I’ve addressed in WoW do not see themselves as victims within
this system, likely because their scarcity greatly increases their value as projected- upon objects of desire (as long as they don’t ask too many questions) without having it related to the physical body outside of the screen. Among the women I’ve talked to, I’ve found that there are two common yet distinct responses to my questions about feminism and being a woman inside of WoW. Response type #1: “Feminists hate men and feminism encourages physically attractive women to be sluts.” Response type #2: “Feminism is about equal rights for women, but I don’t talk about it in WoW because bringing up issues about the community’s exclusivity compromises my participation in competitive play and makes me a target for ridicule.” 

Opportunities to interact online without potential repercussions for one’s offline life are becoming fewer and fewer. 

Of course phrases like “get back to the kitchen/gb2kitchen” or “make me a sandwich” can be said in jest, but they nonetheless reinforce conservative viewpoints regarding women’s roles. The overwhelmingly popular belief communicated in this space— that women are not biologically wired to play video games (but rather to cook, clean, produce and take care of babies, maintain long, dye-free hair and faithfully serve their deserving men)—creates a barrier for women who hope to excel in the game and participate in its social potential. This barrier keeps women from being taken seriously for their contributions within the game beyond existing as abstracted, fetishized sex objects. Women who reject this role may be publicly demonized and called “feminazis.” 
Unfortunately I did not learn how to turn WoW into a space for equitable, respectful conversation, as I had intended. Instead I came away with some thoughts about how much bigger the issues are than the game itself. Back in the days of dial-up modems, when my family finally realized the impending necessity of “getting the internet,” there was a huge fear of allowing anyone to know “who you really were.” Anonymity was the default then, and protecting your identity was key to avoiding scams, having your credit card information stolen, being stalked IRL or whatever else parents everywhere imagined might happen if someone on the internet knew your “real identity.” 
What I learned early on from playing MUD games (text-based multiplayer dungeon games—precursors to MMORPGs like WoW) was that you could actually be quite intimate, revealing and honest with little consequence. There was no connection to your physical self in that kind of setting. But that seems to have changed drastically since the transition from Web 1.0 to 2.0. Web 2.0 has all but eliminated the idealized possibilities of performing an anonymous virtual self, moving internet users toward performing an (often professionalized) online version of one’s physical self (i.e., branding). The possibility of anonymity has disappeared as an increasing number of sites, Facebook foremost among them, require us to use our real names and identities to interact with other individuals online. Opportunities to interact online without potential repercussions for one’s offline life are becoming fewer and fewer. 

Though I had initially hoped to convince many WoW players to reconsider the adopted communal language therein, I quickly realized that this was both a terribly icky colonialist impulse on my part and that its persistence was related to a more complicated desire to hold on to a set of values that is becoming increasingly outdated and unacceptable. Throughout my interventions in the massively multiplayer video game space, I’ve found that WoW is a space in which the suppressed ideologies, feelings and experiences of an ostensibly politically correct American society flourish. 

“It’s just a bunch of 14-year-old boys trolling you won’t cut it—gamers are not a homogeneous social group.” 

In many areas of physical space, racism, homophobia and misogyny play out systemically rather than overtly. It has fallen out of fashion to openly be a sexist, homophobic bigot, so people carve out marginal spaces where this language can live on. WoW is a space in which the learned professional and social behaviors (or performances) that we all employ as we shift from context to context in our everyday life outside of the screen are unnecessary. At the same time, this anonymity produces one of the few remaining opportunities to have a space for solidarity among those who are extremely socially conservative in a seemingly unsurveilled environment unattached to participants’ professional and social identities. For the players I talk to, my research project provides a potentially meaningful platform to share concerns about how social value systems are evolving while protected by the facade of their avatars. 

Thanks to the emerging visibility and solidarity of visual artists, writers, game makers and other cultural producers fostering a “queer futurity of games” (to quote Merritt Kopas) and more inclusive internet spaces in general, I believe that new spaces will be produced by and for those targeted by #gamergate and its ilk. I hope that efforts will move beyond examining how marginalized groups are represented and move toward creating game spaces that promote empathy. Rather than playing a female blood elf solely because you like the design of her ass, players would be allowed to fully experience the perspective of a person they might not understand or agree with. Perhaps by living as an other in this queer utopian game space, players will come to respect people unlike themselves; at the least, they will have a harder time denying that the experiences of other gamers are valid, acceptable and even worth celebrating. 
 

David O’Reilly 大卫·奥锐利

David O’Reilly 大卫·奥锐利

Pat O’Neill 帕特·奥尼奥

Pat O’Neill 帕特·奥尼奥