回顾:第三届深圳独立动画双年展——特别放映 Review: The 3rd Shenzhen Independent Animation Biennale Special Screening 

回顾:第三届深圳独立动画双年展——特别放映
卢川 2016


特别放映是第三届深圳独立动画双年展的板块,为期四天的放映呈现了七位艺术家、六个机构和七位策展人精选的六十二部影片,分别从不同的脉络、线索和地 缘思考动画的边界,涉及到瑞士、荷兰、意大利、法国等重要动画电影节和机构, 如瑞士傀儡动画节、 法国国家现代艺术工作室、一分钟电影节等国际著名机构。 
华侨城创意园 停车场/工业遗留和天空中掠过的飞机:独立创作与主流电影节 
12 月 2 日开幕之夜,展览空间被延展至户外,华侨城创意园 C2 展厅相邻的停车场, 搭建起巨大的投影幕。露天电影院和停车场的钢铁结构相映成趣。呈现邱黯雄《新 三海经 3》和由安妮特·辛德勒策划的瑞士傀儡动画节 2016 年度最佳动画精选。 以此为线索,对比主流电影节和独立动画的独立精神及其文化内涵,表现形式之 多样。 
《新山海经》系列水墨动画是邱黯雄的代表作,是一个跨越十年的创作,作品以 远古神话经典《山海经》为蓝本,带入现代文明,把今天的世界放进远古图景和 想象中,呈现奇特荒诞的异世景观。作品拓展了水墨的当代语言表现力,融合了 表现主义风格的动画手绘方式,批判现实世界的态度以清晰而异样的图像叙事呈 现出来。 
《新山海经 1》以能源的冲突为主线索,展示了现代工业文明对人的异化以及带 来的地缘政治利益的冲突;《新山海经 2》以生物科技和太空技术为题材,在微 观和宏观尺度中,描述了科学技术发展带来的人类危机;《新山海经 3》则把现 实投射到未来,描述了在未来信息社会中互联网给人类带来的迷思,在一个被虚 拟全息图象包裹的废墟一般的城市里,人们生活在虚拟存在与现实存在的双重角 色里,虚拟生活与现实生活重叠混淆,人们沉溺于虚拟的娱乐和自己营造的虚幻 世界,而真实生活却成为枯燥乏味的工作机器,最终虚幻的世界在现实矛盾中崩 溃。作品对虚拟和现实的矛盾纠缠的描述,提出了对人在信息社会的存在悖论。(邱 黯雄,关于《新山海经》系列) 
动画之于邱黯雄是绘画的综合,是传统和当代的碰撞,是一种自主的叙事方法, 一个接近于全景绘画(panorama)的呈现尺度。 
瑞士傀儡动画节的精选,则继续探索和扩延关于动画的可能性。这一动画节自开 始到现在,已经经历了超过 20 年的历程。它位于瑞士小城巴登,于 1995 年成立, 每场次放映超过千人,是全球最重要的动画节之一。FANTOCHE 注重融会贯通 与动漫相关的各类艺术形式,并致力于在各类交流和娱乐活动中运用动画元素, 它着重选择有艺术性的作品,且能够起到推动(新)媒体在美学和艺术上进一步 发展的作用。因艺术节主席安妮特·辛德勒,之前发起巴塞尔新媒体机构 plug-in , 后又发起的巴塞尔电子艺术中心,她的工作从新媒体到动画,也就自然的为动画 节注入了艺术和新媒体的新倾向。 
雅昌艺术中心 不间断的放映:艺术家独立位置,策展倾向、地缘关系下的全球动画扫描 
雅昌艺术中心为期三天的放映,把观众带到影院的观看方式之中,并以独立艺术 个体创作的历史回顾,以及艺术家对动画语言的探索为线索展开。 
开场放映由曹斐基于“第二人生”(2005 年前后)的创作开始,带领观众进入一个 角色扮演的幻想世界,一个虚拟的“人民城寨”。人民城寨由曹斐在 Second Life 中 创建出来的一座虚拟城市,它探索真实世界和虚拟世界的创造性关系,同时它本 身也作为中国城市化的镜像,混杂了历史与记忆、当代与未来的种种图景和符号, 并重新注入了对中国文化、社会学、建筑、历史和经济的新理解。由艺术家本人 扮演的 “中国翠西 ”作为艺术家的化身,虚拟空间中的人与人、人与空间、人与各 种创造物之间的联系,被艺术家真实的记录下来,部分由艺术家友人扮演的角色, 构建着另外一重真实的世界。除了从视觉体验上的三维界面给予人们不同的想象 方式外,第二人生和第一人生——人生究竟意味着什么,也许正如艺术家曹斐所 言,“人民城寨并不是现实生活的一面镜子,它是一条逃逸路线,通往一种我们无 法想象的真实。” 
这个项目由开始到现在也已经十年,就像“人民城寨”浓缩了几乎所有中国当代城 市的特征之余,人们也还会注意到曹斐持续密切的对中国城市(化)发展的关注。 从一个网络世界的化身,重新审视中国式发展,现代性之困境。 
独立精神、独立位置再续:周啸虎、丁世伟、缪晓春、田晓磊
周啸虎的创作是基于身体的创作,放映呈现了他从手绘到身体语言,再由木偶代 替身体的转变。他早期创作的《蜜糖先生》(2002)即是通过真实的人体动作, 与身体上的动画的互动,生动地把男女之间的互相爱恋、对抗和伤害,并将真实 的身体作为媒介,通过绘画技巧和身体表演、行为完美的融合。2016 年的新作《地 上乐园》是与浙江泰顺木偶剧团合作的提线木偶影像作品,结合中国哲学和民间 叙事对庄子的哲学寓言故事进行重新解读,作品延续着他长期以来对“控制”与“被 控制”之间的相互作用和探讨。 
新旧媒介对动画的探索,有使用水墨动画语言的丁世伟,有使用 3D 动画创作的 缪晓春和田晓磊,以及独立动画导演雷磊对动画、设计、音乐的融合。 
丁世伟善于利用手绘的方式和水墨的材料来完成动画,在他富有传统神韵的黑白 画面之外,也看到在日常生活中的意识符号和时代表征,以及他对政治、美学的 理解。 
缪晓春在此次放映展出的三部作品《从头再来》《坐天观井》和《灰飞烟灭》中, 都有欧洲古典音乐元素,介乎宗教和人性,与作品中无表情的人(艺术家自画像) 之对应,有艺术家对媒体、科技、文明的反思。另一个被大量引述的元素是古典 绘画,艺术家将这些场景延展成动画的叙事和身体动作的连续,并通过个人形象 的不断重复再现,提示艺术家的在场或缺席。如他自己所希望探寻的绘画背后的故事,或一个没有参照的处于虚空的形态的观看方式,缪晓春的作品是艺术史的 动画,是一个个连续的图像历史。 
田晓磊同样使用 3D 动画,表达他对科技、生命和人类的思考。《欢乐颂》及新作《创 造》,也都有着对宗教和科技悖论的探寻,人类社会或消费的狂欢,是田晓磊作 品中表述的,或视觉传递的主体,人物形象模糊,不断出现错位的图像,让作品 处于一种不稳定的状态,被延长的特效瞬间或一个动作,都预示着艺术家所给出 的时间关系。 
雷磊受到美术编辑的父亲和小时候每晚六点观看上海美术制片厂动画片的影响, 创作多了一丝怀旧的意味。作品《三缺一》中可以看到童真和想象力。2013 年和 苏文合作《照片回收计划》,收集了五十万张照片。 
上述每一位作者,也都是一个电影制片厂,一个讲故事的人。每个人都在探索着 媒介和个人之间的关系,从情感联系到身份危机,从历史观念到现实温情,从角 色扮演到身体表演,这些媒介关系的探索和实践,是中国独立动画的独立精神和 自由思想,而这些也都必须从个人的觉醒开端。 
全球性机构之补偿 
《特别放映》还在探讨机构和国际标准与独立生产之间的关系。不同的策展人, 提供机构所构建的生产关系,及具体方向的全球性补偿,其中包括刘真辰和法国 现代艺术工作室(LE FRESNOY)、牟雪和荷兰一分钟影像、梁学彬和香港录映 太奇、罗伦佐·鸠斯迪和《复兴》,以及摩登天空和《动画与音乐》的项目。 
艺术家刘真辰为我们带来了 Le Fresnoy 在动画方向的探索,四部动画中艺术家特 兰·迪左图创作的《花车巡游》讲述了一个以动物的视角所拍摄的纪录片,在真 实的三维场景里面,自然和消费、权利的矛盾。劳伦·马雷斯乔的《绿线》则跟 随着一幅在耶路撒冷墙上的壁画展开,由画面的剥落到墙面的分离,最后画面中 留下背后的景观,就像大自然本身有着难以逾越的障碍,文明之间的冲突也如无 形的墙一般存在。 
意大利策展人罗伦佐·鸠斯迪策划的《复兴》项目,时间跨度从 1929 年列恩·雷 创作的《突色拉瓦》中对线条的探索,进而到 2015 年弗兰西斯·亚里斯的《阿尼 的沉默》中对地缘的思考。《阿尼的沉默》讲述了存在于土耳其和亚美尼亚边境 的高原山野中的阿尼小城,一座曾经的辉煌之都,一群孩子在这片断壁残垣中游 戏、奔跑、模仿鸟叫,于合奏之中熟睡、安静。影片最后一只简单勾勒的飞鸟, 以动画的形式飞跃而入画面之中,如同时空的延展,赋予这座小城的另一种新生。 
摩登天空带来动画与音乐的专场,扩展了动画、音乐、光影和现场的可能。从最 早期新裤子的粘土动画,DA BANG 利用 MAPPING 的投影技术的现场,再到后 海大鲨鱼后网络艺术风格的 MV, 这些主流动画的歌曲,也让我们看到动画、媒介、 摇滚乐和现代生活的不同的切面。 
关于空间的放映 
特别放映是对空间的延伸,不管是华侨城创意园的露天影院或雅昌艺术中心的放 映厅,都将动画这一基于时间的艺术重新带入到公众体验,并给予独立动画以不 同的观看方式和条件。艺术家的叙事和观众的理解,一并融合在影院这一单向时 间的环境中。 
时间 / 无间,除了在展厅中通过身体的运动和视角的变化所经历时间和空间的体 验之外,在特别放映这一基于特定空间下的观看体验,正如策展人李振华所言: “我们也将发现一个属于独立个体,也同时属于公众的特殊时刻。这是这次策展希 望打开的维度,从对空间和时间的体验,到对公共空间和原创造的呈现。并让隶 属于展览空间的片刻给空间中的观者,让电影经验和家庭的温暖在放映中复兴。” 

Review: The 3rd Shenzhen Independent Animation Biennale Special Screening
Lu Chuan 2016


As a section of the 3rd Shenzhen Independent Animation Biennale, 62 films selected by 7 artists, 6 organizations and 7 curators were presented to the audience in the course of four days. The films explore the boundaries of animation from different contexts and regions, referring to multiple in uential animation festivals and organizations in Switzerland, Holland, Italy, France, among others, such as Fantoche, Le Fresnoy, The One Minutes and other renowned international organizations. 
Parking Lot, OCT-LOFT / Industrial Legacy, and Planes Flying Across the Sky: independent creation and a mainstream film festival
On Dec. 2, the Opening Night, the exhibition was moved outdoors; in the parking lot next to C2 Space, OCT-LOFT, a huge projection screen was set up. The open- air cinema and the steel construction of the parking lot formed a delightful contrast. New Book of Mountains and Seas Part 3 by Qiu Anxiong and Best of Fantoche 2016 curated by Annette Schindler were screened that night. These lms contrasted the independent spirit, cultural connotations and various manifestations of mainstream film festivals and independent animations. 
The ink animation series New Book of Mountains and Seas is the representative work of Qiu Anxiong. This series spans ten years. Based on the classical mythic text, The Classic of Mountains and Seas, the work blends in modern civilization, transposing the world today to an ancient context and presenting a peculiar landscape. The work expands ink’s expressiveness in modern times and integrates Expressionistic drawings, and critiques the real world by means of a clear yet unusual visual narration. 
New Book of Mountains and Seas Part 1 follows through the thread of conflicts over energy resources, presenting the alienation of people in the face of modern industrialization as well as geopolitical conflicts over profits. Part 2 focuses on biotechnology and aerospace technology, depicting the crisis of humanity as caused by the development of science and technology. Part 3 projects the real world into the future, forging a myth of a future information society: in a ruined city surrounded by virtual holographic images, people take on a double role both in virtual existence and real existence. The virtual and real lives overlap and confound; people indulge themselves in virtual recreation in a fictitious world they created themselves, while real life becomes a boring machine of work. Finally, the virtual world collapses under the contradictions of reality. Through discussions about the contradictions between virtuality and reality, it advances a paradox about people’s existence in an information society. (Qiu Anxiong, On New Book of Mountains and Seas) 
For Qiu Anxiong, animation is a synthesis of painting, a collision between tradition and the contemporary, an independent, willful narrative strategy, and a quasi- panoramic way of presentation. 
The Best of Fantoche continues to explore and expand the possibilities in animation. The Fantoche Animation Festival has a history of over 20 years, founded in 1995 and located in Baden, Switzerland. More than 1,000 spectators participate in each edition and it is one of the most important animation festivals in the world. Fantoche pays attention to the mastery of multiple artistic forms related to animation, and strives to employ animated elements in various entertainment events. Fantoche mainly picks artistic works and works that can promote the (new) media’s development in aesthetics and art. Annette Schindler, Chairperson of the Festival, had previously launched a new-media organization in Basel, Plug-in, and House of Electronic Arts Basel. Moving from new media to animation, she naturally brings an interest in new trends in art and new media to the Animation Festival. 
Artron Art Centre Non-Stop Screening: the Artist’s Independent Position and a Global Overview of Animation under Curatorial Trneds and Geopolitics
The three days of screenings at Artron Art Centre provide the audience with a cinematic mode of viewing, which look back on the history of artists’ creation as individuals and observe artists’ explorations with the language of animation. 
The opening show started with Cao Fei’s work, which is based on Second Life (around 2005), and led the audience into a fantasy world, a virtual “RMB City” which recalls role-playing. RMB City is a virtual city Cao Fei created in Second Life; it explores the creative relations between the real world and the virtual one, while at the same time it is also a mirror of Chinese urbanization, mixing various prospects and signs in history and memory, the contemporary and the future, and providing a new understanding of Chinese culture, sociology, architecture, history and economy. China Tracy, played by Cao himself, acts as the incarnation of all artists and truthfully records the relationships between people, humans and space, humanity and all kinds of creators. Other characters played by Cao’s friends construct other worlds. The three-dimensional interface provides the audience with a different way of imagination. Additionally, Second Life implies the First Life—what does life mean? Perhaps it is just as Cao Fei says, “RMB City is not a mirror of the real life. It is a line of flight, leading to a reality that we could not imagine.” 
This program has spanned ten years to date; like RMB City, which concentrates almost all the traits of contemporary Chinese cities, people will keep noticing Cao Fei’s close attention to the development of Chinese cities and urbanization. From an avatar on the Internet, we get to re-examine the Chinese way of development, and the dilemma of modernity. 

The Continuation of Independent Spirit and Positions: Zhou Xiaohu, Ding Shiwei, Miao Xiaochun, Tian Xiaolei
Zhou Xiaohu’s work is based on the body. The screening presents his shift from hand drawing to the language of the body, and from the body to puppets. His early works The Gooey Gentleman (2002) employs real human body movements and interacts with bodily animation, vividly presenting the love, confrontations and harm between men and women. Regarding the actual body as media, it perfectly combines them with body performance and action through painting techniques. His latest creation in 2016, Garden of Earthly Delights, made in cooperation with Taishun Marionette, Zhejiang, presents a marionette video work. It combines Chinese philosophy and folk narratives in reinterpreting the philosophical fables of Zhuangzi, and this work continues his long discussion of the interaction between the “controlling” and “controlled”. 
In the field of experimental animation through new and old media, Ding Shiwei employs ink animation; Miao Xiaochun and Tian Xiaolei apply three-dimensional creation; and independent animation director Lei Lei blends animation, design and music. 
Ding Shiwei is good at employing hand drawing and ink in his works. In his traditional charmingly resonant black-and-white screen, common symbols and modern traits in daily life can be seen, as well as his understanding of politics and aesthetics. 
Miao Xiaochun presented three pieces in this exhibition, Restart, Microcosm, and Disillusion, which all incorporate European classical music and involve the subjects of religion and humanity. This stands in contrast with the expressionless man in the lms, i.e., a self-portrait of Miao himself. These films incorporate Miao’s reflections on media, technology, and civilization. Another element adopted in great numbers is classical painting. The artist extends these scenes into animated narratives and the continuation of bodily movements; through the repetition of personal images, the work indicates the presence or absence of the artist. Like the stories hehopes to explore behind the paintings, or a mode of observation without prior references located in a condition of nothingness, Miao’s works animate art history, a continual history of imagery. 
Tian Xiaolei adopts the technique of three-dimensional animation, expressing his ideas about technology, life and human beings. His works, like Song of Joy and the latest work The Creation, broach the topics of religion and the paradox of technology. The exuberance of human society or consumerism is expressed in Tian Xiaolei’s oeuvre—or perhaps the subject of his visual transmission. The ceaselessly displaced images allow the works to exist in an unstable state; the prolonged special effects or movements all indicate the temporal relations provided by the artist. 
Lei Lei’s father is an art editor, and as a child, at six o’clock every night, Lei never missed the lms produced by Shanghai Animation Film Studio on television. Under such influences, Lei’s works are always permeated with a certain nostalgia. In Missing One Player, innocence and imagination are fully displayed. He worked with Thomas Sauvin in 2013 on the Recycled photo project from a collection of half a million photos. 
The artists mentioned above are basically film studios themselves and storytellers. They all probe the relationship between media and the individual. From emotional bonds to identity crises, from historical concepts to current concerns, from role-playing to bodily performances, the exploration and practice in these mediatic relations make up the independent spirit and freethinking in Chinese independent animation—and these begin with the individual’s awakening. 
Compensation from Global Institutions
Special Screening also explores the relationship between organizations and international standards on the one hand and independent production on the other. The production relations built by the various curators and institutions, together global “compensations” in specific directions, here include Zhenchen Liu and Le Fresnoy, Xue Mu and The One Minutes, Isaac Leung and Videotage, Lorenzo Giusti and Revival, Modern Sky and Live Animation. 
Artist Zhenchen Liu introduces Le Fresnoy’s practices in animation. In the four lms Liu brought, artist Bertrand Dezoteux’s documentary Le Corso takes up an animal’s perspective and presents the dilemma between nature and consumption in life-like three-dimensional scenes. Laurent Mareschal’s Ligne Verte unfolds with a fresco in Jerusalem. The frame gradually flakes away and the wall splits; at last, there is only the scene behind what is being presented on the screen. In nature, there exists insurmountable obstacles; likewise, the con icts between civilizations are akin to an invisible wall. 
Italian curator Lorenzo Giusti’s project, Revival, spans Len Lye’s Tusalava in 1929 to Francis Alÿs’ The Silence of Ani in 2015. While Lye explores the use of lines in his work, Alÿs is concerned with the issue of geographical relations. The Silence of Ani is set in Ani, a formerly splendid city located on the border of Turkey and Armenia. Some children run and play amid these ruins, imitating the sound of birds; they fall quiet and sleep soundly in a choir. At the end of the lm, a simply sketched bird ies into the screen, symbolizing the extension of time and space, endowing this small town with a rebirth. 
Modern Sky presented the audience with a special performance of animation and music, enriching the possibilities of animation, music, light and live entertainment. From the earliest exploration, the band New Pants’ clay animation, to Da Bang’s live show that adopted the projection technology of mapping, to Queen Sea Big Shark’s post-Internet-style music video, these songs and mainstream animations provide us with different aspects of animation, media, rock music and modern life. 
The screening about space
The Special Screening is a spatial extension. The open-air cinema in OCT-LOFT and the screening room in Artron Art Centre both offer animation—this art of time— in a public setting and grant different forms and conditions of viewing. The artists’ narratives and the audience’s understanding unite in the cinema—where time is unidirectional. 
With Time Based, Non-Places, besides the experiences of time and space we get through bodily movements and the change of perspectives in the exhibition halls, in Special Screening, viewing is constrained within a certain space. As the curator Li Zhenhua notes: “We will find a special moment that both belongs to an individual and to the public. This is the dimension that this curation hopes to open up—from the experience of space and time to the presentation of public spaces and creativity. Fragments that belong to the exhibition space are offered to viewers, allowing the audience to relive their experiences in cinemas as well as the warmth of their homes.” 

雅昌放映场地