冯梦波 Feng Mengbo 中国 China

冯梦波 Feng Mengbo 中国 China

皮里春秋:皮影幕后的故事 冯梦波  1987年9月1日,是我在中央美术学院入学的第一天。美院在小剧场为新生安排了一场皮影表演。有人还记得我画了现场速写,可惜现在找不到了。 皮影或称“影戏”,专家认为是现代电影的起源之一。历史记载,皮影发源于汉代。晋代干宝著《搜神记》云:“故老相承,言影戏之源,出于汉武帝(公元前156—87年),李夫人之亡,齐人少翁言能致其魂,上念夫人无已,乃使致之。少翁夜为方帷,张灯烛,帝坐他帐,自帐中望见之,仿佛夫人像也,故今有影戏。” 从第一次看皮影,我就被它独特的艺术形式深深吸引。童年时期中国还没有电视,相伴成长的是和皮影有渊源的幻灯剧和木偶戏,这种经验使我对皮影一见如故。而它原始的唱腔又十分震撼。那天表演的剧团来自古都西安附近的华县。 陕西皮影唱腔又称“碗碗腔”,类似于秦腔但是更加原始粗放。影戏又称“小戏”,相对于秦腔(“大戏”)轻简而价廉,更适合乡间消费不起大戏的人群。 一个标准的皮影戏班只消五人组成:“前声”(主唱兼使手锣、堂鼓等),“签手”(操纵影人),“板胡”,“二胡”和“后台”(签手的助手)。舞台由木条和丝幕(后用棉布代替)片刻就可搞定,照明就是一碗清油加棉花捻就的灯芯。场地一般设在乡下的空场或庙里,如果本地的财主有婚丧嫁娶等红白喜事,需要摆排场讲体面,请来的皮影戏班也可能把场子设在他的宅门里。 Donkey_ment(皮里春秋)是2005年和乌里·希客(Uli Sigg)拟定的题目。最初的想法是创作一个双频道的视频装置,用数据投影机取代皮影戏常用的普通电灯光源。我计划用电子游戏引擎创作三维动画实时放映来替换掉皮影戏的空白背景,以动画技术扩展皮影本身的二维空间,丰富传统影戏的意义。 那两年里我做了很多研究,包括读书和观看皮影表演,且与相关人士探讨。最终有一出戏吸引了我,即《游阴曹》(又称《游地狱》)。我从90年代初开始用电子游戏为媒介进行创作,对这类惊悚暴力场面相当熟悉和感兴趣,所以很自然地决定将“阴曹”作为作品里最后而且最主要的部分。我向皮影研究专家和收藏家打听,但是即使他们也从未见过整套的“阴曹”。2007年初我十分幸运地在一个偶然的机会找到了16件保存相当完好的“阴曹”,专家鉴定为清代所制。我又向皮影雕刻大师汪天稳先生定做了十余件新的皮影供演出之用。 去西安一带实地调查之后,我改变了主意,把综合电子游戏动画技于传统皮影的想法推迟。《皮里春秋》(Donkey_ment)会是一个三频道的视频装置,将从舞台的三个方向取景:正面、背面和左面。三台投影机同步放映以重现舞台的三维空间,带给观众从未体 验过的原始皮影观看经验。此刻我认为一个翔实的纪录远比一个新(New media)的创意更加迫切和有意义,尤其是这很可能是两位皮影表演大师同台表演的最后一次机会。他们是潘京乐先生(89岁)和李世杰先生(72岁)。 在皮影专业表演公司雨田社的协助下,我得以用HDV摄影机拍摄了精选的三出皮影戏:《降火龙》(《西游记》一折)、《借水》(《金碗钗》一折)和《游阴曹》。《游阴曹》自解放后便从未公开演出过。李世杰先生早年曾和他父亲一起演过此戏。这次在我的请求下,他综合了自己的记忆和其他剧本,并参考了我提供的皮影实物重新创作。 实际拍摄过程十分难忘。两位老人和整个皮影剧团一遍又一遍地做了辉煌的表演。用一盏手工造的清油灯我们成功地捕捉到了暗淡而美丽的古朴光线。这灯火燃烧产生的浓烟在为了录音而封闭的室内几乎令人窒息。录制结束,我们都像是在炼狱中煎熬过一样,带着熏黑的面孔重返人间。  小时候,去剧场和电影院都是奢侈。但是每年暑假,我们学校(东城区春江小学)都有游园会,我最喜欢的就是在帐篷里看幻灯片。 当时幻灯是主要的宣传工具,不但有官方发行的幻灯片,还有各单位自制的节目。幻灯的技术被发挥到极限:双片推送变成双帧循环动画;镜头创造景深;罐头盒用钉子打孔旋转成星空;点火或放烟……内容更是无奇不有,从政治到科教,从语录到“张三你妈找你”。 不知为什么,我对幻灯最深的记忆是每次去看电影,人生鼎沸时突然灯光熄灭,红幕拉开,蓝底上一个硕大的“静”字。我的心就静下来,好像飞到观众席两米以上的地方,静观一个奇迹的开始。 2001年我应邀在纽约Dia艺术中心做个展,我就做了三个Shockwave幻灯片,总题叫《幻影故事》,副标题是《一块银元,三条石和幻灯技术》。 《幻灯》用我收藏的幻灯片重新编排,用多台幻灯机、薄膜唱片和鼓,讲述一个人的故事。  Donkey_ment: A Story behind the Piying Scene  On September 1, 1987—the first day of my study at the Central Academy of Fine Arts— a Piying show (Chinese shadow puppets) was presented for us in the academy’s theatre. Some people recall that I made some lively drawings of the puppets, but unfortunately I have misplaced them.  Academics believe Piying could be one of the influences on today’s films. As recorded in Chinese history, piying was founded during the Han Dynasty. The story goes that as emperor Han Wu Di (B. C. 156-87) mourned his dead concubine Li Fu Ren, Shao Weng said he could bring Li’s soul back. In the night Shao Weng used screens and candles to make a shadow puppet of Li, and emperor Han was moved.  The first time I saw a Piying play, I was totally captivated by this unique style of art. This is not just because I grew up before TV—which is quite similar to Piying technology—with revolutionary slide shows and because its raw soundtrack is so strong. The Piying group that night was from Hua Xian, a small county near Xi’an, which was China’s capital for thousands years. Originally, the combination of musical instruments and singing was called wan wan qiang, which is similar to qin qiang (big play)—but much more raw and powerful—and Piying was nicknamed xiao xi (small play). Compared to qin qiang, Piying was cheaper and easier to setup, and mostly for country people who could not afford the cost of staging qin qiang. A standard piying group is usually made up of five people: the qian sheng (vocal/singer); qian shou (puppet operator); ban hu (two-string bow player); er xian (also a two-string instrument but played by plucking); and hou tai (helper of the qian sheng). The traditional stage was formed by a few pieces of wood with a silk or cotton screen, and a light made of a bowl of cooking oil with a cotton wick. The stage could be set up in a few minutes, usually in the open air, or in a temple, or in the house of a local landlord who might have hosted the play as entertainment for a birth day party or a burial.  The title of my work Donkey_ment was created in early 2005. The original idea was to make a double-channel movie installation, using computer date projection instead of the normal electronic lighting used for today’s Piying play. I planned to make a 3D animation using a video game enging that can play in real time, to give the traditional piying a 3D motion background instead of its stable empty background, make the scenes three-dimensional, enlarge the space, combine some today’s animation technology, and to try to enrich the meaning of the original plays.  I have carried out a lot of research over the last two years, including reading and watching actual Piying plays and talking with people. I made several detailed proposals, and a few pictures finally caught my imagination; in particular the play You Di Yu or You Yin Cao (A Tour of Hell). Since I have worked with the video game as medium since the early 1990s, I am familiar with and interested in these kinds of horrifying and violent scenes, so it is natural for me to decide to focus on the idea of hell as the last and main part of my work. I asked some professionals and a piying collector, but no one had ever seen a full set of puppets from the“A Tour of Hell” play. I was lucky to find a 16-piece set of “hell” puppets early this year, which was verified by a professional as being made during the Qing Dynasty. Most of them were in very good condition and, although not a full set, with the help of piying product master Whang Tianwen, I ordered more than ten new pieces, which is enough in order to stage a play.  After my field research in Xi’an early this year, I changed my idea. I’m putting off to a further project the edea of combining an original Piying play with a computer animation of game technology. Now Donkey-ment will be a tree-channel movie installation, which will film the stage from three directions: frontal, from behind, and from the left side. Three projectors will play back the action on stage in three dimensions, which will bring the audience a never- before-had experience of a raw piying play. I think it si very important to make this work as a rich documentary rather than to show an artistic idea in the form of a media work, especially as it maybe the last chance to have the two piying master performers on the same stage: Pan Jing Le is 89 years old and Li Shijie is 72 years old.  With the kind assistance of Yu Tian She, the only professional piying performance business company in Xi’an, I finally selectd three fine plays to be shot with three HDV cameras: Xiang Huo Long (Drop a Fire Dragon Down); Jie Shui (Borrowing Water); and You Yin Cao. The last one has not been performed on stage since 1949. Li Shijie played it in his early years with his father, and, as I asked him, he rewrote the play by combining his memories and a few other screenplays with reference the piying puppets I had found.  The actual filming was unforgettable. The two masters, pan Jingle and Li Shijie, and the whole group gave a brilliant performance. By using a traditional hand-made cooking-oil light, we successfully created raw scenses with low, beautiful lighting. However, this generated very heavy smoke in the room, which was completely closed to allow a good sound recording, and everybody almost suffocated in the last few minutes. We were all cooking in hell but luckily we all returned to earth, although with smoking black faces!  In my childhood, going to the theatre and cinema was a luxury. But during every summer holidays, there was a garden party organized by our elementary school (Chunjiang Elementary School of Dongcheng District, Beijing). In the garden party, my favorite part was to see the slides in the huge tent. At that time, the form of slides was a main tool for the propaganda. Not only the official government released the slides but also the administrative units produced their homemade programs. The techniques of slides had been developed into the extreme: double frame cycle animation altered from Biplane Push; depth of focus made created by lens; starry sky made by the swirling can with nail drillings; fire or smoke, etc. The rich content varied from politics to scientific education; from the quotations to “Zhang San, your mom is looking for you!”. I don’t know why the deepest impression the slide made on me was the word “SILENCE” on the blue screen after the red curtain had rolled up. The word appeared when the light suddenly dimmed down in the buzzing crowd. My heart calmed down the light, flying above the audience and witnessing the start of a miracle. In 2001, I was invited by New York Dia Art Center to do a solo exhibition where I staged my three Shockwave slides named Phantom Story. The subtitle was “A Piece of Silver, Three Bars of Stone and Slide Techniques.” Slide is a work of rearrangement of my collection of slides, using multiple projectors, film discs and drums to tell the story of a man.    《皮里春秋》装置,2007年,展览“中国欢迎你——希望、奋斗、新身份”,奥地利格拉茨美术馆 Donkey_ment, 2007, China Welcome You… Desires, Struggles, New Identities, Kunsthaus Graz, Austria  皮影艺人李世杰,时年72岁,2006年 Piying artist Li Shijie, 2006  《游阴曹》,皮影片,驴皮上色 A Tour of Hell, Piying film, color on Donkey leather  皮影艺人潘京乐,时年89岁,2006年 Piying artist Pan Jingle, 2006  皮影匠人制备牛皮,2006年 Piying craftsman made cow leather, 2006  《幻灯》,开幕表演,2014年 Slide, Opening show, 2014 

皮里春秋:皮影幕后的故事
冯梦波

1987年9月1日,是我在中央美术学院入学的第一天。美院在小剧场为新生安排了一场皮影表演。有人还记得我画了现场速写,可惜现在找不到了。
皮影或称“影戏”,专家认为是现代电影的起源之一。历史记载,皮影发源于汉代。晋代干宝著《搜神记》云:“故老相承,言影戏之源,出于汉武帝(公元前156—87年),李夫人之亡,齐人少翁言能致其魂,上念夫人无已,乃使致之。少翁夜为方帷,张灯烛,帝坐他帐,自帐中望见之,仿佛夫人像也,故今有影戏。”
从第一次看皮影,我就被它独特的艺术形式深深吸引。童年时期中国还没有电视,相伴成长的是和皮影有渊源的幻灯剧和木偶戏,这种经验使我对皮影一见如故。而它原始的唱腔又十分震撼。那天表演的剧团来自古都西安附近的华县。
陕西皮影唱腔又称“碗碗腔”,类似于秦腔但是更加原始粗放。影戏又称“小戏”,相对于秦腔(“大戏”)轻简而价廉,更适合乡间消费不起大戏的人群。
一个标准的皮影戏班只消五人组成:“前声”(主唱兼使手锣、堂鼓等),“签手”(操纵影人),“板胡”,“二胡”和“后台”(签手的助手)。舞台由木条和丝幕(后用棉布代替)片刻就可搞定,照明就是一碗清油加棉花捻就的灯芯。场地一般设在乡下的空场或庙里,如果本地的财主有婚丧嫁娶等红白喜事,需要摆排场讲体面,请来的皮影戏班也可能把场子设在他的宅门里。
Donkey_ment(皮里春秋)是2005年和乌里·希客(Uli Sigg)拟定的题目。最初的想法是创作一个双频道的视频装置,用数据投影机取代皮影戏常用的普通电灯光源。我计划用电子游戏引擎创作三维动画实时放映来替换掉皮影戏的空白背景,以动画技术扩展皮影本身的二维空间,丰富传统影戏的意义。
那两年里我做了很多研究,包括读书和观看皮影表演,且与相关人士探讨。最终有一出戏吸引了我,即《游阴曹》(又称《游地狱》)。我从90年代初开始用电子游戏为媒介进行创作,对这类惊悚暴力场面相当熟悉和感兴趣,所以很自然地决定将“阴曹”作为作品里最后而且最主要的部分。我向皮影研究专家和收藏家打听,但是即使他们也从未见过整套的“阴曹”。2007年初我十分幸运地在一个偶然的机会找到了16件保存相当完好的“阴曹”,专家鉴定为清代所制。我又向皮影雕刻大师汪天稳先生定做了十余件新的皮影供演出之用。
去西安一带实地调查之后,我改变了主意,把综合电子游戏动画技于传统皮影的想法推迟。《皮里春秋》(Donkey_ment)会是一个三频道的视频装置,将从舞台的三个方向取景:正面、背面和左面。三台投影机同步放映以重现舞台的三维空间,带给观众从未体 验过的原始皮影观看经验。此刻我认为一个翔实的纪录远比一个新(New media)的创意更加迫切和有意义,尤其是这很可能是两位皮影表演大师同台表演的最后一次机会。他们是潘京乐先生(89岁)和李世杰先生(72岁)。
在皮影专业表演公司雨田社的协助下,我得以用HDV摄影机拍摄了精选的三出皮影戏:《降火龙》(《西游记》一折)、《借水》(《金碗钗》一折)和《游阴曹》。《游阴曹》自解放后便从未公开演出过。李世杰先生早年曾和他父亲一起演过此戏。这次在我的请求下,他综合了自己的记忆和其他剧本,并参考了我提供的皮影实物重新创作。
实际拍摄过程十分难忘。两位老人和整个皮影剧团一遍又一遍地做了辉煌的表演。用一盏手工造的清油灯我们成功地捕捉到了暗淡而美丽的古朴光线。这灯火燃烧产生的浓烟在为了录音而封闭的室内几乎令人窒息。录制结束,我们都像是在炼狱中煎熬过一样,带着熏黑的面孔重返人间。

小时候,去剧场和电影院都是奢侈。但是每年暑假,我们学校(东城区春江小学)都有游园会,我最喜欢的就是在帐篷里看幻灯片。
当时幻灯是主要的宣传工具,不但有官方发行的幻灯片,还有各单位自制的节目。幻灯的技术被发挥到极限:双片推送变成双帧循环动画;镜头创造景深;罐头盒用钉子打孔旋转成星空;点火或放烟……内容更是无奇不有,从政治到科教,从语录到“张三你妈找你”。
不知为什么,我对幻灯最深的记忆是每次去看电影,人生鼎沸时突然灯光熄灭,红幕拉开,蓝底上一个硕大的“静”字。我的心就静下来,好像飞到观众席两米以上的地方,静观一个奇迹的开始。
2001年我应邀在纽约Dia艺术中心做个展,我就做了三个Shockwave幻灯片,总题叫《幻影故事》,副标题是《一块银元,三条石和幻灯技术》。
《幻灯》用我收藏的幻灯片重新编排,用多台幻灯机、薄膜唱片和鼓,讲述一个人的故事。

Donkey_ment: A Story behind the Piying Scene
On September 1, 1987—the first day of my study at the Central Academy of Fine Arts— a Piying show (Chinese shadow puppets) was presented for us in the academy’s theatre. Some people recall that I made some lively drawings of the puppets, but unfortunately I have misplaced them. 
Academics believe Piying could be one of the influences on today’s films. As recorded in Chinese history, piying was founded during the Han Dynasty. The story goes that as emperor Han Wu Di (B. C. 156-87) mourned his dead concubine Li Fu Ren, Shao Weng said he could bring Li’s soul back. In the night Shao Weng used screens and candles to make a shadow puppet of Li, and emperor Han was moved. 
The first time I saw a Piying play, I was totally captivated by this unique style of art. This is not just because I grew up before TV—which is quite similar to Piying technology—with revolutionary slide shows and because its raw soundtrack is so strong. The Piying group that night was from Hua Xian, a small county near Xi’an, which was China’s capital for thousands years. Originally, the combination of musical instruments and singing was called wan wan qiang, which is similar to qin qiang (big play)—but much more raw and powerful—and Piying was nicknamed xiao xi (small play). Compared to qin qiang, Piying was cheaper and easier to setup, and mostly for country people who could not afford the cost of staging qin qiang. A standard piying group is usually made up of five people: the qian sheng (vocal/singer); qian shou (puppet operator); ban hu (two-string bow player); er xian (also a two-string instrument but played by plucking); and hou tai (helper of the qian sheng). The traditional stage was formed by a few pieces of wood with a silk or cotton screen, and a light made of a bowl of cooking oil with a cotton wick. The stage could be set up in a few minutes, usually in the open air, or in a temple, or in the house of a local landlord who might have hosted the play as entertainment for a birth day party or a burial. 
The title of my work Donkey_ment was created in early 2005. The original idea was to make a double-channel movie installation, using computer date projection instead of the normal electronic lighting used for today’s Piying play. I planned to make a 3D animation using a video game enging that can play in real time, to give the traditional piying a 3D motion background instead of its stable empty background, make the scenes three-dimensional, enlarge the space, combine some today’s animation technology, and to try to enrich the meaning of the original plays. 
I have carried out a lot of research over the last two years, including reading and watching actual Piying plays and talking with people. I made several detailed proposals, and a few pictures finally caught my imagination; in particular the play You Di Yu or You Yin Cao (A Tour of Hell). Since I have worked with the video game as medium since the early 1990s, I am familiar with and interested in these kinds of horrifying and violent scenes, so it is natural for me to decide to focus on the idea of hell as the last and main part of my work. I asked some professionals and a piying collector, but no one had ever seen a full set of puppets from the“A Tour of Hell” play. I was lucky to find a 16-piece set of “hell” puppets early this year, which was verified by a professional as being made during the Qing Dynasty. Most of them were in very good condition and, although not a full set, with the help of piying product master Whang Tianwen, I ordered more than ten new pieces, which is enough in order to stage a play. 
After my field research in Xi’an early this year, I changed my idea. I’m putting off to a further project the edea of combining an original Piying play with a computer animation of game technology. Now Donkey-ment will be a tree-channel movie installation, which will film the stage from three directions: frontal, from behind, and from the left side. Three projectors will play back the action on stage in three dimensions, which will bring the audience a never- before-had experience of a raw piying play. I think it si very important to make this work as a rich documentary rather than to show an artistic idea in the form of a media work, especially as it maybe the last chance to have the two piying master performers on the same stage: Pan Jing Le is 89 years old and Li Shijie is 72 years old. 
With the kind assistance of Yu Tian She, the only professional piying performance business company in Xi’an, I finally selectd three fine plays to be shot with three HDV cameras: Xiang Huo Long (Drop a Fire Dragon Down); Jie Shui (Borrowing Water); and You Yin Cao. The last one has not been performed on stage since 1949. Li Shijie played it in his early years with his father, and, as I asked him, he rewrote the play by combining his memories and a few other screenplays with reference the piying puppets I had found. 
The actual filming was unforgettable. The two masters, pan Jingle and Li Shijie, and the whole group gave a brilliant performance. By using a traditional hand-made cooking-oil light, we successfully created raw scenses with low, beautiful lighting. However, this generated very heavy smoke in the room, which was completely closed to allow a good sound recording, and everybody almost suffocated in the last few minutes. We were all cooking in hell but luckily we all returned to earth, although with smoking black faces! 
In my childhood, going to the theatre and cinema was a luxury. But during every summer holidays, there was a garden party organized by our elementary school (Chunjiang Elementary School of Dongcheng District, Beijing). In the garden party, my favorite part was to see the slides in the huge tent. At that time, the form of slides was a main tool for the propaganda. Not only the official government released the slides but also the administrative units produced their homemade programs. The techniques of slides had been developed into the extreme: double frame cycle animation altered from Biplane Push; depth of focus made created by lens; starry sky made by the swirling can with nail drillings; fire or smoke, etc. The rich content varied from politics to scientific education; from the quotations to “Zhang San, your mom is looking for you!”. I don’t know why the deepest impression the slide made on me was the word “SILENCE” on the blue screen after the red curtain had rolled up. The word appeared when the light suddenly dimmed down in the buzzing crowd. My heart calmed down the light, flying above the audience and witnessing the start of a miracle. In 2001, I was invited by New York Dia Art Center to do a solo exhibition where I staged my three Shockwave slides named Phantom Story. The subtitle was “A Piece of Silver, Three Bars of Stone and Slide Techniques.” Slide is a work of rearrangement of my collection of slides, using multiple projectors, film discs and drums to tell the story of a man. 


《皮里春秋》装置,2007年,展览“中国欢迎你——希望、奋斗、新身份”,奥地利格拉茨美术馆
Donkey_ment, 2007, China Welcome You… Desires, Struggles, New Identities, Kunsthaus Graz, Austria

皮影艺人李世杰,时年72岁,2006年
Piying artist Li Shijie, 2006
《游阴曹》,皮影片,驴皮上色
A Tour of Hell, Piying film, color on Donkey leather
皮影艺人潘京乐,时年89岁,2006年
Piying artist Pan Jingle, 2006
皮影匠人制备牛皮,2006年
Piying craftsman made cow leather, 2006
《幻灯》,开幕表演,2014年
Slide, Opening show, 2014 

冯梦波
1966年生于北京,1991年毕业于中央美术学院版画系。 中国首个运用电脑创作的艺术家,并以电子游戏为媒介创 作闻名。现工作和生活于北京。参加过很多国内外大型展览,主要个展有:2011 年北京今日美术馆“梦波 2012”, 2010 年美国纽约PS1 当代艺术中心“冯梦波”,2009年北京尤伦斯艺术中心“重启”,2008 年捷克布拉格鲁道夫美术馆“中国绘画:冯梦波”,2003 年台北当代美术馆“虚拟过去,复制未来:冯梦波 1994—2003”,2002 年美 国芝加哥文艺复兴学会“Q4U”,2001 年纽约 Dia 艺术中心“幻影故事”,1998 年纽约霍利·所罗门画廊“冯梦波”,1994 年香港汉雅轩“游戏结束:长征”。重要群展:第 10 届和第 11 届卡塞尔文献展(1997/2002)、第 45 届威尼斯双年展(1993)等。 
Feng Mengbo
Feng Mengbo was born in 1966 in Beijing. He lives and works in Beijing. He received BA degree in Print Making Department of CAFA (Central Academy of Fine Arts) in 1991. As the first Chinese artist to use computer technology, he is also a pioneer to use video game as a medium for arts. solo exhibitions included Today Art Museum (Mengbo 2012, in 2011, Beijing); PS1 (Feng Mengbo, 2010, New York); UCCA (Restart, 2009, Beijing); Galerie Rudolfinum (Chinese Paintings, Feng Mengbo, 2008, Prague, Czech); Museum of Contemporary Art (Past Virtualized - Future Cloned: Feng Mengbo 1994- 2003, Taipei); The Renaissance Society (Q4U, 2002, Chicago); Dia Center for the Arts (Feng Mengbo: Phantom Tales, 2001, NYC); Holly Solomon Gallery (Feng Mengbo, 1998); Hanart TZ Gallery (Game Over: Long March, 1994). Group exhibitions included Documenta X and Documenta XI in Kassel (Germany), 45th Venice Biennial (1993) and many more. 
 

刘韡 Liu Wei 中国 China

刘韡 Liu Wei 中国 China

哈伦·法罗基 Harun Farocki 德国 Germany

哈伦·法罗基 Harun Farocki 德国 Germany